Monday, June 29, 2009
The Keladi dynasty germinated in the year 1499 at the fag end of the medieval period. The Keladi Nayakas emerged as a force to reckon with after the supremacy of the Vijayanagar Empire declined following the defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565. The Nayakas built a formidable kingdom which encompassed the Malnad region and parts of coastal Karnataka extending up to Kasargod in Kerala.
During the regime of the Nayakas, four capitals (all are in the present day Shivamogga district) were established. Keladi was the first capital and Chowdappa Nayaka their first chieftain. During the tenure of Sadashiva Nayaka, the capital was shifted to Ikkeri. Shivappa Nayaka, the most prominent Keladi Nayaka ascended the throne at Nagara (also known as Bidanur), the third capital. The valiant Rani Chennamaji was coronated at Kavaledurga, the fourth and final capital.
The Keladi Nayakas were able administrators and continued the legacy of the rulers of Vijayanagar. They patronized art and culture and built palaces, forts and temples some of which are still standing. The Shivappa Nayaka Palace in Shivamogga and meticulously sculpted temples at Keladi and Ikkeri sprung up in the golden era of the Nayakas.
Shivappa Nayaka Palace and Museum
The Shivappa Nayaka Palace is located amidst the busy streets of Shivamogga town. The liberal use of wood for the construction of the palace renders a rustic look to it. The open courtyard has octagonal wooden pillars and two flights of stairs. It is flanked by rooms on either side. The upper storey has two rooms and sixteen wooden pillars. It is said that the balcony of the palace was used to conduct durbars (court of a native ruler) when the king paid a visit to the town. Rajaram, the son of Maratha king Shivaji, is said to have taken refuge in this palace when he was attacked by Aurangzeb.
The Shivamogga district has an illustrious political lineage. It was ruled by the Shatavahanas, Kadambas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and Nayakas who were patrons of art. Artifacts collected from different parts of the district are exhibited in the sprawling lawns of the palace. Numerous artistic sculptures, ancient scriptures and relics that depict the rich cultural heritage and vibrant history of the region are displayed in chronological order. The 10th century sculpture of Mahishasura Mardhini, the 11th century idol of Uma Maheshwara and the more recent 17th century sculpture of Jade ( jade means braid in Kannada) Ganapathi are some awe-inspiring creations. The State Department of Archeology took over the maintenance of the palace in 1982. The palace was in a dilapidated condition and the effort of the department to restore it to its current state is commendable. This maintenance of the palace is immaculate and can serve as a model for restoration of such timeless treasures.
Ikkeri Aghoreshwara Temple
Aghoreshwara Temple in Ikkeri is one of the most impressive constructions of the Keladi Nayakas. The temple was built under the patronage of Dodda Sankanna Nayaka and has flavours of Dravidian and Hoysala styles in its architecture.
The original deity of the temple which had 32 hands is revered as an innovative creation. The idol was destroyed during the attack of Ranadulla Khan of Bijapur. Lamps and other damaged structures indicate that the idol was over 10 feet in height. Only the ornate pedestal on which the deity was placed remains now and a Shiva lingam has been erected on it. The outer walls and ceiling of the temple are adorned with intricate carvings. Beside the main temple, there is a shrine dedicated to Goddess Akilandeshwari. An imposing Nandi stands tall in the elaborately sculpted Nandi Mantapa, built on a 4 feet high plinth.
The interiors of the Keladi temple can surprise the visitor as it looks rather nondescript from outside. Popularly known as the Keladi Rameshwara Temple, the temple complex encloses a Parvati shrine, a Rameshwara shrine and a Veerabhadra shrine. According to a legend, Chowdappa Nayaka found a lingam buried in an anthill on which his cow was shedding its milk everyday. It is said that the Keladi temple was built around this sacred lingam
The architecture of the temple is unique and has influences of Kadamba, Hoysala and Dravidian styles. The roof and pillars of the Parvati Temple have intricate carvings on wood.
The stone sculpture of Ganda Berunda on the ceiling of the Veerabhadra Temple is exquisite. It is a depiction of a two-headed garuda (a mythical bird) holding lions with its beak and elephants with its claws. The ‘yali columns’ which are pillars depicting horses or lions with their fore paws raised are also seen here. There is a Nandi Dwajastamba (pillar) at the entrance of the Veerabhadra Temple. The tall pillar which has a Nandi on the top is said to have been erected during the reign of Rani Chennamaji.
Many ancient artifacts are carefully preserved in a museum in the vicinity of the Ramashwara Temple at Keladi. This rural museum serves as a repository of historic accounts and is a resource centre for research scholars and students. The museum has a collection of rare objects which include swords, combs, manuscripts, coins and brass idols. Paintings that exude creativity are preserved at the museum. An illustration of Queen Victoria and the countries colonized by the British in an exquisite work of art called "The Guardian Angel of the British Empire" is a masterpiece.
The Keladi Nayakas reigned supreme for over two centuries and have left a firm imprint in the Shivamogga district. The exemplary maintenance of many sites of immense historical importance is impressive. A trail to trace these structures that are reminiscent of the glory of the Keladi Empire is enriching.
This article was published in Deccan Herald on the 30st of June 2009. Below is the link to the online version of the article.